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Darwinian laws

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French author and economist. Search site. Related letters. Why is the fossil record overall so difficult to reconcile with the steady process of gradual transformation predicted by the neo-Darwinian theory? Research at Cambridge. Publishers artists and illustrators.

Others split the life cycle into further components of selection. Thus viability and survival selection may be defined separately and respectively as acting to improve the probability of survival before and after reproductive age is reached, while fecundity selection may be split into additional sub-components including sexual selection, gametic selection, acting on gamete survival, and compatibility selection, acting on zygote formation.

Selection can also be classified by the level or unit of selection. Individual selection acts on the individual, in the sense that adaptations are "for" the benefit of the individual, and result from selection among individuals.

Gene selection acts directly at the level of the gene. In kin selection and intragenomic conflict , gene-level selection provides a more apt explanation of the underlying process.

Group selection , if it occurs, acts on groups of organisms, on the assumption that groups replicate and mutate in an analogous way to genes and individuals.

There is an ongoing debate over the degree to which group selection occurs in nature. Finally, selection can be classified according to the resource being competed for.

Sexual selection results from competition for mates. Sexual selection typically proceeds via fecundity selection, sometimes at the expense of viability.

Ecological selection is natural selection via any means other than sexual selection, such as kin selection, competition, and infanticide. Following Darwin, natural selection is sometimes defined as ecological selection, in which case sexual selection is considered a separate mechanism.

Sexual selection as first articulated by Darwin using the example of the peacock 's tail [81] refers specifically to competition for mates, [84] which can be intrasexual , between individuals of the same sex, that is male—male competition, or intersexual , where one gender chooses mates , most often with males displaying and females choosing.

Phenotypic traits can be displayed in one sex and desired in the other sex, causing a positive feedback loop called a Fisherian runaway , for example, the extravagant plumage of some male birds such as the peacock.

Aggression between members of the same sex is sometimes associated with very distinctive features, such as the antlers of stags , which are used in combat with other stags.

More generally, intrasexual selection is often associated with sexual dimorphism , including differences in body size between males and females of a species.

Natural selection is seen in action in the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Since the discovery of penicillin in , antibiotics have been used to fight bacterial diseases.

The widespread misuse of antibiotics has selected for microbial resistance to antibiotics in clinical use, to the point that the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA has been described as a "superbug" because of the threat it poses to health and its relative invulnerability to existing drugs.

A similar situation occurs with pesticide resistance in plants and insects. Arms races are not necessarily induced by man; a well-documented example involves the spread of a gene in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina suppressing male-killing activity by Wolbachia bacteria parasites on the island of Samoa , where the spread of the gene is known to have occurred over a period of just five years [90] [91].

A prerequisite for natural selection to result in adaptive evolution, novel traits and speciation is the presence of heritable genetic variation that results in fitness differences.

Genetic variation is the result of mutations, genetic recombinations and alterations in the karyotype the number, shape, size and internal arrangement of the chromosomes.

Any of these changes might have an effect that is highly advantageous or highly disadvantageous, but large effects are rare.

In the past, most changes in the genetic material were considered neutral or close to neutral because they occurred in noncoding DNA or resulted in a synonymous substitution.

However, many mutations in non-coding DNA have deleterious effects. Some mutations occur in "toolkit" or regulatory genes. Changes in these often have large effects on the phenotype of the individual because they regulate the function of many other genes.

Most, but not all, mutations in regulatory genes result in non-viable embryos. Some nonlethal regulatory mutations occur in HOX genes in humans, which can result in a cervical rib [95] or polydactyly , an increase in the number of fingers or toes.

Established traits are not immutable; traits that have high fitness in one environmental context may be much less fit if environmental conditions change.

In the absence of natural selection to preserve such a trait, it becomes more variable and deteriorate over time, possibly resulting in a vestigial manifestation of the trait, also called evolutionary baggage.

In many circumstances, the apparently vestigial structure may retain a limited functionality, or may be co-opted for other advantageous traits in a phenomenon known as preadaptation.

A famous example of a vestigial structure, the eye of the blind mole-rat , is believed to retain function in photoperiod perception.

Speciation requires a degree of reproductive isolation —that is, a reduction in gene flow. However, it is intrinsic to the concept of a species that hybrids are selected against, opposing the evolution of reproductive isolation, a problem that was recognised by Darwin.

The problem does not occur in allopatric speciation with geographically separated populations, which can diverge with different sets of mutations.

Poulton realized in that reproductive isolation could evolve through divergence, if each lineage acquired a different, incompatible allele of the same gene.

Selection against the heterozygote would then directly create reproductive isolation, leading to the Bateson—Dobzhansky—Muller model , further elaborated by H.

Allen Orr [98] and Sergey Gavrilets. Natural selection acts on an organism's phenotype, or physical characteristics.

Phenotype is determined by an organism's genetic make-up genotype and the environment in which the organism lives. When different organisms in a population possess different versions of a gene for a certain trait, each of these versions is known as an allele.

It is this genetic variation that underlies differences in phenotype. An example is the ABO blood type antigens in humans, where three alleles govern the phenotype.

Some traits are governed by only a single gene, but most traits are influenced by the interactions of many genes. A variation in one of the many genes that contributes to a trait may have only a small effect on the phenotype; together, these genes can produce a continuum of possible phenotypic values.

When some component of a trait is heritable, selection alters the frequencies of the different alleles, or variants of the gene that produces the variants of the trait.

Selection can be divided into three classes, on the basis of its effect on allele frequencies: directional, stabilizing, and purifying selection.

This process can continue until the allele is fixed and the entire population shares the fitter phenotype. This process can continue until the allele is eliminated from the population.

Purifying selection conserves functional genetic features, such as protein-coding genes or regulatory sequences , over time by selective pressure against deleterious variants.

Some forms of balancing selection do not result in fixation, but maintain an allele at intermediate frequencies in a population. This can occur in diploid species with pairs of chromosomes when heterozygous individuals with just one copy of the allele have a higher fitness than homozygous individuals with two copies.

This is called heterozygote advantage or over-dominance, of which the best-known example is the resistance to malaria in humans heterozygous for sickle-cell anaemia.

Maintenance of allelic variation can also occur through disruptive or diversifying selection , which favours genotypes that depart from the average in either direction that is, the opposite of over-dominance , and can result in a bimodal distribution of trait values.

Finally, balancing selection can occur through frequency-dependent selection, where the fitness of one particular phenotype depends on the distribution of other phenotypes in the population.

The principles of game theory have been applied to understand the fitness distributions in these situations, particularly in the study of kin selection and the evolution of reciprocal altruism.

A portion of all genetic variation is functionally neutral, producing no phenotypic effect or significant difference in fitness. Motoo Kimura 's neutral theory of molecular evolution by genetic drift proposes that this variation accounts for a large fraction of observed genetic diversity.

As a result, the genetic variation at those sites is higher than at sites where variation does influence fitness. Natural selection reduces genetic variation by eliminating maladapted individuals, and consequently the mutations that caused the maladaptation.

At the same time, new mutations occur, resulting in a mutation—selection balance. The exact outcome of the two processes depends both on the rate at which new mutations occur and on the strength of the natural selection, which is a function of how unfavourable the mutation proves to be.

Genetic linkage occurs when the loci of two alleles are in close proximity on a chromosome. During the formation of gametes, recombination reshuffles the alleles.

The chance that such a reshuffle occurs between two alleles is inversely related to the distance between them. Selective sweeps occur when an allele becomes more common in a population as a result of positive selection.

As the prevalence of one allele increases, closely linked alleles can also become more common by " genetic hitchhiking ", whether they are neutral or even slightly deleterious.

A strong selective sweep results in a region of the genome where the positively selected haplotype the allele and its neighbours are in essence the only ones that exist in the population.

Selective sweeps can be detected by measuring linkage disequilibrium , or whether a given haplotype is overrepresented in the population.

Since a selective sweep also results in selection of neighbouring alleles, the presence of a block of strong linkage disequilibrium might indicate a 'recent' selective sweep near the centre of the block.

Background selection is the opposite of a selective sweep. If a specific site experiences strong and persistent purifying selection, linked variation tends to be weeded out along with it, producing a region in the genome of low overall variability.

Because background selection is a result of deleterious new mutations, which can occur randomly in any haplotype, it does not produce clear blocks of linkage disequilibrium, although with low recombination it can still lead to slightly negative linkage disequilibrium overall.

Darwin's ideas, along with those of Adam Smith and Karl Marx , had a profound influence on 19th century thought, including his radical claim that "elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner" evolved from the simplest forms of life by a few simple principles.

Natural selection had the power, according to Stephen Jay Gould , to "dethrone some of the deepest and most traditional comforts of Western thought", such as the belief that humans have a special place in the world.

In the words of the philosopher Daniel Dennett , "Darwin's dangerous idea" of evolution by natural selection is a "universal acid," which cannot be kept restricted to any vessel or container, as it soon leaks out, working its way into ever-wider surroundings.

This unlimited applicability has been called universal Darwinism. How life originated from inorganic matter remains an unresolved problem in biology.

One prominent hypothesis is that life first appeared in the form of short self-replicating RNA polymers. These conditions are: heritability, variation of type , and competition for limited resources.

The fitness of an early RNA replicator would likely have been a function of adaptive capacities that were intrinsic i.

In , the embryologist Wilhelm Roux published Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus The Struggle of Parts in the Organism in which he suggested that the development of an organism results from a Darwinian competition between the parts of the embryo, occurring at all levels, from molecules to organs.

According to this cellular Darwinism, random variation at the molecular level generates diversity in cell types whereas cell interactions impose a characteristic order on the developing embryo.

The social implications of the theory of evolution by natural selection also became the source of continuing controversy.

Friedrich Engels , a German political philosopher and co-originator of the ideology of communism , wrote in that "Darwin did not know what a bitter satire he wrote on mankind, and especially on his countrymen, when he showed that free competition, the struggle for existence, which the economists celebrate as the highest historical achievement, is the normal state of the animal kingdom.

For example, in , Konrad Lorenz , in writings that he subsequently disowned, used the theory as a justification for policies of the Nazi state.

He wrote " The racial idea as the basis of our state has already accomplished much in this respect. More recently, work among anthropologists and psychologists has led to the development of sociobiology and later of evolutionary psychology, a field that attempts to explain features of human psychology in terms of adaptation to the ancestral environment.

The most prominent example of evolutionary psychology, notably advanced in the early work of Noam Chomsky and later by Steven Pinker , is the hypothesis that the human brain has adapted to acquire the grammatical rules of natural language.

By analogy to the action of natural selection on genes, the concept of memes —"units of cultural transmission," or culture's equivalents of genes undergoing selection and recombination—has arisen, first described in this form by Richard Dawkins in [] and subsequently expanded upon by philosophers such as Daniel Dennett as explanations for complex cultural activities, including human consciousness.

In , Alfred J. Lotka proposed that natural selection might be understood as a physical principle that could be described in terms of the use of energy by a system, [] [] a concept later developed by Howard T.

Odum as the maximum power principle in thermodynamics , whereby evolutionary systems with selective advantage maximise the rate of useful energy transformation.

The principles of natural selection have inspired a variety of computational techniques, such as "soft" artificial life , that simulate selective processes and can be highly efficient in 'adapting' entities to an environment defined by a specified fitness function.

Goldberg , [] identify optimal solutions by simulated reproduction and mutation of a population of solutions defined by an initial probability distribution.

Darwinian evolution by natural selection is pervasive in literature, whether taken optimistically in terms of how humanity may evolve towards perfection, or pessimistically in terms of the dire consequences of the interaction of human nature and the struggle for survival.

Among major responses is Samuel Butler 's pessimistic Erewhon "nowhere", written mostly backwards. In H. Wells imagined " The Man of the Year Million ", transformed by natural selection into a being with a huge head and eyes, and shrunken body.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 25 September For other uses, see Natural Selection disambiguation.

Mechanism of evolution by differential survival and reproduction of individuals. Darwin's finches by John Gould. Key topics.

Introduction to evolution Common descent Evidence. Processes and outcomes. Natural history. History of evolutionary theory.

Fields and applications. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.

Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support. Main article: History of evolutionary thought.

Main articles: Inception of Darwin's theory and Development of Darwin's theory. Further information: Coloration evidence for natural selection.

Main article: Modern synthesis 20th century. Main article: Genetic variation. Main article: Fitness biology. Main article: Competition biology. Further information: Sexual selection.

Further information: Antimicrobial resistance. Main articles: Evolution and Darwinism. Main article: Speciation. Main article: Genotype—phenotype distinction.

Main article: Directional selection. Main articles: Genetic variation and Genetic drift. Main article: Universal Darwinism.

Main article: Abiogenesis. Main article: Evolution in fiction. Journal of the History of Biology. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.

Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions : 74—77 — via Springer. Berlin: — Evolution: The History of an Idea 3rd ed. Journal of the History of Ideas. Strickberger's Evolution 4th ed.

Jones and Bartlett. Darwin Correspondence Project. Letter Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 12 January Summer John's Law Review.

Jamaica, NY. This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr.

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Director: Jace Alexander. Writers: Dick Wolf created by , Marc Guggenheim. Stars: Jerry Orbach , Jesse L. Martin , S. Yet we still have never seen a species transform.

Thus my prediction. Based on our growing understanding of genetic coding, gene switching, protein unfolding and new observational tools, sometime in the next 25 years one species will be observed to transform into another.

And back again- it will be a simple, single mutation which triggers the change [4]. If one had to guess, an insect is the perfect candidate- many already "transmute" from caterpillar to butterfly.

Such an observation would solidify Darwin's Law of Evolution's place among the greatest of all scientific insights.

Reproducible species transmutation will not convince a creationist of Darwin's validity- loose thinking and bad science provide a convenient escape clause.

But most of us can finally concentrate on the future rather than debating the past. And let science and religion coexist in their own, compelling dominions.

Pope John Paul declared evolution is not in conflict with the teaching of the Bible or the Church, and left its validity to be decided by the tools and methods of science although in July 05, Pope Benedict XVI seems poised to undermine this interpretation.

The Episcopalians generally are comfortable with an "old earth" and Darwinism, and see the mechanism of evolution as being set in motion by God to keep order in his world.

Reformed Jews generally agree with Darwinism, though they lack a central authority on which to rely. The Dali Lama finds no contradictions between science and Buddhism.

Conversely, most Evangelical Christian groups reject Darwinism as a threat to their adamant belief in a young Earth and biblical inerrancy.

A Theory is a hypothesis that has been experimentally tested and pretty soundly confirmed. Indeed, we are so comfortable with the accuracy of that law, that we use it to prove or disprove other hypothesis.

By these definitions, Darwinian Evolution lays somewhere between a theory and a law. On the other hand, Intelligent Design is a hypothesis that failed as a theory, since it makes no testable predictions, and its attacks on Darwinism are shallow and easily dismissed.

In fact, Astrology is a much strong hypothesis than Intelligent design, since it makes numerous, easily tested predictions about fate, love and the probability of individual actions.

Of course, when these predictions are tested, they are no more accurate than chance. But at least Astrology comes close to meeting the requirements of a scientific theory.

Intelligent design is dumber than a box of rocks. In August the President seemed to indicate he supported teaching "Intelligent Design" along side evolution.

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Darwinian Laws

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Charles Darwin - The Theory Of Natural Selection